|Nowadays new applications and processing technologies place new and bigger demands on polymeric materials. Materials for 3D printing or electrically conductive polymer composites can serve as typical examples. In most cases these systems have a heterogeneous phase structure, which influences the end-use properties of the final material to a large extent. The emergence of nanocomposite technology has provided a revolutionary new solution to wide range of technological aspects, not only provided novel functionalities, but also solved fundamental problems of polymer composites such as flammability and poor mechanical properties. The aim of the work is to develop novel high-performance polymer composites/ nanocomposites and discover the relationships between structure and properties of materials relevant for practical applications. Work activities include a synthesis of novel multifunctional nanomaterials, preparation of polymeric materials and chemical and structural investigations by means of different advanced characterization techniques. Furthermore, mechanical and flow behaviour of prepared materials will be studied in detail.