Equipment of our group


Stuff Equipment Publications


Department of the polymeric membranes is equipped by a series of devices used in basic and advanced characterizations of membranes and membrane materials. List of the devices is shown below. We have easy access to the most of all other equipment in our institute (see equipment of other departments)

Sorption balance IGA-100 Manufacturer: Hiden Isochema, Limited


The IGA-100 is designed for gravimetric multi-component gas sorption, as well as single component vapour sorption analysis. The multiple inlet mass flow controller system allows multi-component experiments in both pressure control and flow control modes. The IGA design integrates precise computer-control and measurement of mass change, pressure and temperature to enable fully automatic and reproducible determination of gas and vapour sorption-desorption isotherms and isobars in diverse operating conditions

The device allows to measure the sorptions in a wide range of pressures (0.1 mbar - 500 mbar - / sensitive gauge for low pressures / or 0.1 bar - 20 bar pressures gauge for high pressures). Temperature measurements can be made from -10 to 500 ° C. Dewar vessel filled with the liquid nitrogen can be also used for BET isoterms, specific area and porosity measurements.

The device allows to determine the sorption capacity, sorption coefficients, diffusion coefficients, activation energy of diffusion and sorptions, specific surface area materials (BET method ISOTERM)



Laboratory permeation apparatus with static membrane cell


The apparatus was developed by the IMC and can measure gas permeability through the polymer films (membranes) with very high accuracy. This is due to the special design of the membrane cell which isolates studied membrane by the vacuum interspace from the external environment (measurements are not influenced by any air leakage from outside environment). Aparatus can operate in the temperature range of 25-50 ° C, the injection pressures of gases can be in range range is from 500 Pa - 400 kPa (abs). Device allows to measure permeability and diffusion coefficients of the gases in polymers, from these parameters the sorption coefficient can be also calculated.  


Permeation apparatus for measurement of polymers in swollen state


The apparatus has been also developed at IMC, based on previous device and it can additionally measure the permeability of gases in swollen membranes. Membrane is in the contact with tha vapour of the tested liquid (water, various organic solvents) and with tested gas all at once. Measurements can be carried out at various partial pressures of both the vapour and  the tested gas. Measurement temperature range may vary from 20 ° C - 100 ° C.



Pycnomatic ATC (helium pycnometer) Manufacturer: Thermo Scientific


Pycnomatic ATC (Automatic Temperature Control) delivers fast and accurate results for the determination of the skeletal density of solids and powders. Pycnomatic applies the volumetric gas displacement technique and features an integrated temperature control by a Peltier device for best and fastest instrument stabilization and testing speed. Pycnomatic ATC has a built in multi-volume capability to match the widest number of applications with best accuracy and repeatability.



Atomic Force Microscope:  MultiMode AFM Nanoscope IIIa (model 1998)   Manufacturer: Digital Instruments


The microscope performs a range of scanning probe microscopy techniques to measure surface characteristics, including topography, elasticity, friction, adhesion, magnetic fields, electrochemical, thermal and electrical fields.

Available modes: Contact mode, Tapping mode with phase imaging, Lateral force microscop (LFM), Magnetic Force Microscopy, Force modulation



Single column gas chromatograph  Manufacturer: Labio a.s.


This simple gas chromatograph with a thermal-conductivity sensor has been specially developed for the separation membranes. This device is designed for the analysis of multicomponent mixtures of gases (eg. H2, He, N2, O2, etc...)  



Vacuum oven to 300 °C  Manufacturer: Vakuum Praha


The special-order oven for drying samples under vacuum at high temperatures (up to 300 °C). An internal copper heat plate temperates samples. Use of inert gases is also an option.



Automatic titrators                                                Manufacturer: SCHOTT ČR, a.s.


Automatic titrators are used in measurements of ion-exchange capaties iof ionex membranes. 



Assymetric-flow field-flow fractionation

System Eclipse 3+ for aqueous solvents with GPC option,
light-scattering detector Dawn Helios 8+ & diferential refractometer Optilab rEx

Manufacturer: Wyatt Technologies.


A system for separation of proteins, nanoparticles and microparticles, aggregates and polymers according to their size in the absence of a stationary phase and under negligible shear combined with determination of their size and molecular weight. Both soluble and colloidal polymers can be separated and characterized over a wide size range. Adsorption of samples is minimize due to the absence of a stationary phase. A size-exclusion-chromatography mode is also available.



Modular system for size exclusion  chromatography
pump Deltachrom (Watrex Comp.), autosampler Midas
detectors: light-scattering DAWN Helleos II (Wyatt Technologies), viscosity TriSEC TDA 301 (Viscotek), refraktometer  Optilab t-rEX (Wyatt Technologies) & evaporativ light scattering PL ELS 1000 (Polymer Laboratories)


Size-exclusion chromatography a.k.a. gel-permeation chromatography is a principal method for determination molecular-weight distribution (MWD) of disperse polymer samples. The set of detectors is suitable for any of basic methods of MWD determination – calibration by polymer standards, universal calibration or absolute determination from light scattering. Concurrent determination of MWD and of size distribution gives information on branching of polymer chains.



MALDI-TOF/TOF mass spectrometer ultrafleXtreme  Manufacturer: Bruker Daltonics


The instrument can determine molecular weights upto 1000 kDa at FWHM resolution of 1200 and precision 50 ppm on external calibration; in the reflectron mode upto 100 kDa at FWHM resolution of 25000 and precision 5 ppm on external calibration. Determination of average molecular weights polymers is restricted to sample of low dispersity (<1.2). Information on structure of molecules is possible to obtain from MS/MS experiments analyzing fragments obtained by LID, CID or ISD.



Gass chromatograph Clarus 680 with mass spectrometer  Clarus SQ 8 T
Pyrolyser: CDS Pyroprobe Model 5150 (CDS Analytical)
Head-space sampler: TurboMatrix 110 

Manufacturer: Perkin Elmer


Addition of a pyrolyser and headspace sampler to gas chromatograph/mass spectrometer combination greatly enhances their use in polymer science. Besides traditional purity check and admixture identification of solvents and monomers, information on low-molecular-weight additives polymer and on polymer composition can be obtained.



 CHN/S Elemental analyser 2400 II                       Manufacturer: Perkin Elmer


The instrument is used to a rapid determination of carbon, hydrogen and nitrogem content in organic compounds. Measurement is based on the classical Pregl- Dumas method where samples are combusted in a pure oxygen environment, with the resultant combustion gases analyzed automatically.



Energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence spectrometer XEPOS Manufacturer: Spectro Analytical Instruments


The instrument routinely analyzes solid, powder or liquid samples for wide range of elements from sodium to uranium.



Additional instruments and equipment:

Vacuum oven
Electrodialysis unit Tokuyama TS -2-10
Elektronic mass flow controlers Aalborg
Laminar flowbox
Buble flowmeter
Heat plate for solvent evaporation from cast mebranes


Otto Wichterle Centre of Polymer Materials and Technologies - CPMTOW

Centre of Biomedicinal Polymers - CBMP

Centre of Polymer Sensors - CPS

Polymers for Power Engineering - Energolab


Institute of Macromolecular Chemistry AS CR
Heyrovského nám. 2
162 06 Prague 6
Czech Republic
tel:+420 296 809 111
fax:+420 296 809 410

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